Bromberg and Manoharan further found many cities to be lacking the internal capacity to innovate and manage specific e-government applications. As understood by practitioners and scholars, IT capacity can refer to both technical capacity and human capacity in an organization, and future research should clarify and investigate these different dimensions. This is a matter of better resources, but it is also about focusing on more sharing of knowledge and training across municipalities with support from legal and technological experts in the private sector and civil society.
Such models have proven successful in spreading good practices in open data among cities and could be explored for other types of e-government technologies Ingrams A factor closely related to IT capacity is the level of IT skills among local government employees. Many local governments are facing a shortage of employees with relevant IT skills, and recent studies have clearly identified the mismatch between the e-government courses and topics that academic programs offered and what practitioners needed at the workplace Manoharan and McQuiston Are we providing students with multiple perspectives of efficiency, effectiveness, and equity, as they begin to implement e-government initiatives?
More importantly, is there a significant gap between the teaching and practice of e-government, and if so, how can we address this divide? M-government provides great potential for local e-government due to its mobility, wireless capacity, and use of apps, which stretches the boundaries of the Internet from computers to mobile carriers, and even further to interconnectivity of devices in all our daily activities, known as the Internet of Things.
Consequently, the adoption of mobile technologies facilitates the transformation of e-government to smart government. But the effectiveness of m-government in complementing e-government depends on the responsiveness of governments and citizens to this change Ingrams ; Manoharan, Bennett, and Carrizales Accordingly, future research should examine how various local governments approach the idea of smart cities and to what extent they involve citizens in smart designs of public infrastructure or data-driven approaches to public decision-making.
What are the stages in the development of smart cities and factors essential for the successful implementation of such initiatives?
More importantly, how can their success be measured, and what is their impact on citizens? Such focus on the above trends among regions across the world is important to acquire a broad understanding of smart cities from a global and comparative perspective. These current and future avatars provide vast potential to continuously innovate and improve the performance of local governments, facilitate intergovernmental collaboration, and promote local responsiveness.
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Request Permissions View permissions information for this article. Manoharan 1 Aroon P. Alex Ingrams. Article information. Article Information Volume: 50 issue: 1, page s : Article first published online: March 18, ; Issue published: March 1, Corresponding Author: Aroon P. Email: aroon. Keywords e-government , local government , innovation , success factors , institutional perspective.
Understanding E-Government Adoption and Growth. Factors and Determinants of Local-level E-government Adoption. External Enablers. Internal Enablers. Table 1. Barriers to E-Government Success. View larger version. The Institutional Perspective.
The purpose and functions of government
Recent Innovations and Opportunities for Citizen Participation. Conclusion and Suggestions for Future Research. Empirical Testing of E-Government Models. Best Practices.
IT Capacity. Professional Staffing.
Open in new tab. Download in PowerPoint. Figure 1. M-Government and Smart Cities. View Abstract. Article available in:. Vol 50, Issue 1, International Review of Administrative Sciences.
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